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Sunday, September 19, 2010

HAI: Let's prevent it!

Have you heard about HAI? It stands for Healthcare-associated infections. From the term itself, you can have an idea on where and how these infections come from. These infections are contracted in a health care setting. It commonly occurs in hospitals where lots of health workers and patients interact and the frequency of transmitting these infections is high.

These infections are usually caused by bacteria and viruses such as, Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus, M. tuberculosis, Hepatitis A, B and C viruses, Influenza virus and other pathogens. These microorganisms are usually transmitted through inhalation of aerosols or close contact with an infected person, ingestion, or through needle stick injury or entry in an open wound.

But these infections can be easily prevented by practicing safety guidelines to minimize if not to eradicate these infections. The most effective way to do is by hand washing. Hand washing minimizes infectious agents that are transmitted through hand contact. A good hand washing technique is the use of adequate amount of soap to kill microorganisms present, rubbing of hands to thoroughly clean the area and rinsing it under running water is a good technique. Here is an illustration by the Department of Health: HANDWASHING

Among health care personnel, these infections can be prevented by always wearing PPE or personal protective equipment. This usually includes gowns, face masks and sometimes goggles, depending on the hazard of the site where these persons work. Following the universal precaution is another way to prevent pathogens that are present in body fluids especially blood. Needle stick injury is one of the common causes of transmission of blood borne pathogens. Observing proper collection and handling of blood and other body fluids can greatly minimize transmission of these infectious agents.

Another way to prevent the spread of infection is disinfection of working areas, instruments, machines, tools, parts, or other equipment that are frequently used. Microorganisms can easily manifest in these kinds of inanimate objects. Frequent disinfection of these apparatuses can minimize transmission of these harmful agents.

Patients in hospitals are also susceptible to these infections mainly because their immune system is at its weakest point. Surgery site infections are acquired when the proper handling, patient preparation, proper surgical techniques are not observed. Infections can be exogenous or endogenous in nature. Improper surgical team hand preparation, contamination or unsterilized surgical equipments, and contamination by the normal flora of the skin are some of the causes of SSI. Proper aseptic techniques and surgical procedures must be observed to prevent these infections.

To know more about HAI... visit: http://haiwatchnews.com/


References:

http://haiwatchnews.com/
http://www.doh.gov.ph/
http://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/articles/2002/04/fighting-surgical-site-infections.aspx
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/healthDis.html

Monday, October 19, 2009

Almost Gone

It's been a month since typhoon ondoy devastated our homelands.Many cities we're affected and many are struggling just to rise again.

Here are some images of Amang Rodriguez Medical Center at Marikina City. We helped here to clean up the mess the typhoon left. We also packed our things for our departure back to Pampanga because we can no longer practice our intership program at the hospital because of the destroyed facilities.

I pray that the people in the affected areas to have their normal life back and unite to preserve and protect our nature to prevent this devastation.








Tuesday, September 1, 2009

DRUGS. DRUGS. DRUGS.

Drug testing requirement for school admissions.

I think it’s a good program to be done in school admissions, especially in the college level. No parent wants their child to be in a school with drug users. Of course, they want a good environment for their child to develop them into a good, competent and professional when they finished their studies. If there are any drug users in a college/university, many things can happen. They can inflict harm to other students, faculties, school personnel and can influence normal students to use prohibited drugs.

Drug abuse is bad not only to oneself, but also to the people that surrounds him/her. So it's better to screen them before entering school, to ensure the safety not only of the people in the school, but also a step to bring back the normal life of the one who is taking prohibited drugs.

Let’s make this country a drug free environment by starting with young generations.

Answers for "SPECIFY"

1. Corticotropin-releasing hormone

2. Dopamine

3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

4. Growth hormone-releasing hormone

5. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

6. Somatostatin

7. Thyrotropin

8. Specificity

9. anterior pituitary

10. Luteotropic hormone



In the growth of humans, the major role of our hypothalamus is the secretion of a specific hormone to stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to secrete growth hormone that is responsible for our growth. And the specific hormone that inhibits the anterior pituitary gland is somatostatin.

Tuesday, August 25, 2009

SPECIFY!

Identify the following:

1. What hormone stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete Adenocorticotropic hormone?

2. What hormone inhibits the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary?

3. What hormone stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone?

4. What hormone stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete growth hormone?

5. What hormone stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete thyroid stimulating hormone?

6. What hormone inhibits the secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary?

7. What is the other name for thyroid stimulating hormone?

8. What is the property of a particular substance in order to react or stimulate a specific target and not react with other substances?

9. What is the organ that is stimulated/inhibited by the hypothalamus?

10. What is the other name for prolactin?


Site an example that portrays the specificity of hormones secreted by the hypothalamus.

Tuesday, August 18, 2009

SPECIFICITY

It is the property of a particular substance to react or stimulate a specific target and not react with other substances.


The hormones that are released by the hypothalamus have very high specificity that they only correspond to their target cells or organs. One of these hormones is somatostatin that inhibits the secretion of human growth hormone by the anterior pituitary gland. These hormones only target the pituitary gland and do not stimulate or inhibit any other parts of the body.


This table shows the hormones released by the hypothalamus and their specific function:


HYPOTHALAMUS HORMONE

TARGET / FUNCTIONS

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete Adenocorticotropic hormone



Dopamine

inhibits the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary



Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone



Growth hormone-releasing hormone

stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete growth hormone



Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete thyroid stimulating hormone (Thyrotropin)



Somatostatin

inhibits the secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary



References: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothalamus, http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/The-Hypothalamus-and-Pituitary-Glands.topicArticleId-22032,articleId-21959.html